Saturday, March 14, 2009

Industrial Safety and Security (Subjective Notes) - 5

Part II

Q.1. List various security principles and explain any three of them.

Ans :- Security principles: Various security principles are:

1. Physical security only gives 6-8 minutes of reaction time
2. Security department – is only as strong as its weakest link.
3. Physical security reaction time can be improved by concept of defense in depth.
4. Lesser the number of gates better is the security.
5. Material movement should be allowed only in general shift.
6. Whatever protects the Organisation must be protected.
7. In this millennium, the most important thing to protect is information.

1. Physical security only gives 6-8 minutes of reaction time:

The physical security such that as wall barbed wire, watchman post, barricades, lightly locks, seals etc. give us 6 – 8 minutes of reaction time. Every wall can be climbed and most locks can be opened in 8 minutes. Therefore, manning plan should be made in such a manner that every place in perimeter, security and security of important places must be under surveillance every 6 – 8 minutes.

2. Security department is only as strong as its weakest link:

The security department can be compared with a chain. If a link s weakened in a chain due to chafing, it reduces entire chain’s strength. Similarly, even if few security personnel were slack, negligent or dishonest the entire security departments efficiently would come down. Security personnel should be selected for integrity and honesty. They must be periodically checked.

3. Physical security reaction time can be improved by concept of defense in depth:

If we want to add more time for reaction to security threat, we can give defense in depth by adding an outer fence of chain link fence and put a lawn between it and main wall fencing.

We can also put together all the important things like cash, system department design and drawing, E&D department or its data and cluster it together and fence and guard it with our best security personnel.

Q.2 Enumerate importance of Report writing and explain how would you write a good report.

Ans :- Importance of Report Writing:

Communication skills, such as writing good reports and speaking well are the foundation of many professional positions. A major part of a security officer’s job is to observe and report unusual occurrences, crimes, unsafe conditions, fire hazards, violations of policies and procedures. Specific examples include a suspicious movement of inventory, a damaged intrusion alarm system r a fire extinguisher requiring recharging. The overall purpose of such reporting is to protect people and assets.

1. Report writing reflects on a security officer’s communication abilities.
2. Supervisors get to know their subordinates through reports.
3. Performance evaluations are partially based on the quality of report writing by subordinates.
4. Many supervisors consider report writing a major factor in promotions.
5. Security and loss prevention managers use individual reports and summations of many reports to study loss trends and to land and budget.
6. As in many cases, a sole security officer may e the first person to respond after a serious event, such as robbery. In certain instances, the security officer may be a witness. Under such circumstances, all concerned parties will look to the security officer for facts.
7. Once a report is prepared, it may serve as a reference for the security officer, supervisors, managers, public police or those involved in criminal and civil proceedings.
8. The value of a quality report is illustrated when, at a later date, the security officer has to testify about its contents in court.
9. The value of quality reports is illustrated when an analysis of several reports produces a suspect in a series of crimes or reveals a serious safety hazard that can be corrected.

Writing of Good quality reports:


Facts recorded in a notebook after an incident prove to be valuable during the writing of a report. A good place to begin the report is to develop a rough outline (list the main points) so facts can be presented in logical order. This helps to organize a report in a narrative style (the story of the events) with a chronological sequence (according to time) of events. For example, the suspect was first seen at 8.00 p.m. across the street from the main gate. At 5.15 p.m. the suspect was observed and apprehended while trying to cut through the perimeter fence 50 feet north of Third Street on Lake Avenue.

Ronald Woodruff, in his book Industrial Security Techniques states:

Narrative reporting should always be rotten in terms of the third person i.e. “this officer” rather than “I” or “the suspect” rather than “he”. This method of writing promotes a more impersonal, business like air.

When referring to persons in the report, they should be identified as to their involvement with the incident such as “subject#I” and “subject#2” or “victim was found in”, and so

on. Obviously, the complete names of the persons involved should appear on the report, but they should be indexed to a descriptive term.


Reports must be factual and accurate, since future decisions ma be based on their content. A lawsuit may follow. Since this possibility exists, personal opinions should not be incorporated into reports.

Reports should be concise. Use short sentences and common words. Get to the point with facts. Eliminate unnecessary words, phrases and sentences.

Complete reports contain as many important details as possible. Include additional background information that may be helpful to a supervisor or investigator. A standard report form prepared by management assists security officers in remembering to ask appropriate questions. A standard form can be used as a guide while asking questions and taking notes at the scene. Later, the quickly written notes can be neatly printed on a fresh report form.

Editing of a report should be accomplished before the final draft is prepared. It involves deleting or relocating certain words or sentences, or making additions to improve the report. Look for misspelled words, awkward sentences and necessary repetitions of words. As the report is proofed for errors, use a dictionary.

A neat report reflects on the security officer. The report should look good. Neat penmanship is important, as well as an absence of wrinkles in the paper, food or liquid stain, and dirt. If possible, the report should be typed, or otherwise print neatly.

A timely report is submitted when due. Usually, incident reports are required at the end of the shift. Reports submitted on time reflect on the security officer. Furthermore, when a report is prepared as soon as possible, the facts are fresh in your mind.

Make it clear:

The clarity of report will depend to some extent on its form, but ensure that it is under standable, simple language and in a chronological order:

Keep the report brief:

Many departments in an industry allow themselves to become report happy. Administrations have gone overboard in compiling volumes of statistics and have burdened their officers with preparation o report on every conceivable incident, which may occur. If the department is overburdened with too many reports, the time for preparation of these reports can only come from the time, which should be devoted to meeting department’s basic responsibility. The paper work should be confined to basic need for the report. Reports are usually made on any unusual happening such as accident, fire, theft, burglary, assault etc.

Form Report:

Standard format reports have the distinct advantage of providing the most simple means of
transmitting a reporting event with the least chance or error or misrepresentation. They may be compiled in a short time and could be read and reviewed in a minimum time. The danger with the format reports is that if they are not supervised very closely, they are not better than person filling in blanks. The form report is useful in tabulating statistics concerning the performance of the

Dept. Form report should be simple, brief and to the point. Guards and others completing form reports should be taught the meaning behind each question so that they may be exact in recording the information needed. If the individual knows the purpose for which the report is intended, the importance of meaning attached to the form, he will try harder to place greater importance on the completion of the form to the best of his ability.


1. The language of the report should be simple and not creating a double meaning.
2. Use small sentences.
3. Make paragraphs to make point clear
4. Unrelated statement should not be made.
5. Write the sequence of events in a chronological order.
6. It should be brief and to the facts. Senior Executives cannot spend more time on lengthy reports.
7. Report should look clear & presentable. Overwriting or too many corrections should be avoided.
8. Report should be complete in all respects.
9. If it is a handwritten report, write with clear legible handwriting.
10. It should be without prejudices or bias.
11. Do not make any criticism, opinion or views. Remember “Hear Say” statements have no evidentiary value either into the Court of Law or into Departmental enquiries.
12. Flowery language does not have any value to the facts of the case.

Q.3 Explain reasons for internal theft and examples of internal theft. What are the strategies to combat internal theft?

Ans :- Internal theft:

Internal thefts are thefts committed by own employees by way of pilferage, embezzlement etc.

Examples of internal theft:

• Stealing goods from cartons and keeping those empty carton in stack.
• Using company’s tools, equipment for own use.

• Using company’s telephone for private work especially trunk calls and international calls.
• Stealing money from petty cash.
• Overcharging customers and keeping the difference.
• Selling goods to friends at less price.
• Bogus attendance and then getting paid for it.
• Punching another workers card.
• Overstaying in coffee or lunch break.
• Using sick leave as casual leave.
• Faking injuries to receive compensation.
• Selling good quality items as scrap.
• Receiving bribes from supplier.

Reasons for internal theft:

It will be interesting to note as to why industrial crimes are on increase. Some of the reasons which comes to mind are:

• Fast growing unemployment
• Ever increasing lawlessness
• Terrorist activities
• Political separatist movements
• Motivation from competitors
• Ready receivers of stolen property and
• Fast vanishing traditional loyalty to the organization or respect for certain values or ethics.

Strategies to prevent internal theft:

• Strict access control.
• Materials movement only in general shift
• Strict control over scrap disposal.
• Patrolling and searching.

Embezzlement and frauds:

• Rotate security personnel to have a dual system of control e.g.Store and Security.
• Strict assignment of responsibility so that accountability is improved.
• Periodic internal audits of material.
• Better inventory control system like Just In Time (JIT).
• Rotation of employees
• Job applicant scrutiny
• Good training and awareness programme.

Q.4. How and where would you detect potential industry unrest? How would you prepare for strike or lockout?

Ans :- Introduction:

Industries are facing such a stiff competition that industrial unrest is the last thing they want to have. In today’s circumstance, a strike / lockout for few months could be responsible for company becoming sick forever. During this period, the competitors would snatch its customers and in most case even after recommencing operations. It would be difficult to run it profitably.


The industrial unrest can be divided in four parts:

1. Detection of industrial unrest in normal times.
2. Preparing to face strike / lockout
3. A to Z of industrial unrest
4. Recommencing operations.

1. Detection of industrial unrest in normal times:

Competition has made industrial unrest a disastrous event. We must be able t detect it in the industry before it comes out in open as gate meeting or slogans against management. Most of the problems are small and manageable in their formative stages. However, if unattended, they quickly bloom to become full scale problems leading to lower morale and industrial unrest.

There are five departments where symptoms industrial unrest can be found out:

a) HR Department
b) Production department
c) Security department
d) Canteen department
e) Dispensary.

HR Department:

This department always interacts with union subcommittee members. The tell tale signs of growing disgruntles would be avoiding taking decisions on the pretext that some important member like General Secretary, President or Joint Secretary is absent or on leave. The Union may profess co-operation but in reality, would not be co-operating. Typical case could be asking for helpers with machine operators or crane operators. When we point out to the Union that, they would that we have never given a helper in the past. Union’s co-operation in the past is not reciprocated and now it is demand from their member.

Production Department:

Production Department shop engineers, supervisors are interacting with workers all the time and if they are taken into confidence, they would tell the real picture.

All labor unrest is bound to result in lowered production. Therefore, if we observe production figures by shifts, by plants or by departments, we can notice any variations and then go into details. Workers are afraid of individual action against them and will be reluctant to work below punishment levels. However, most companies have production
process e.g. Foundry, Machine shop, assembly shop, test shoe, Paint & Packing. The union may slow down to in one particular section and before management takes action
revert to normalcy. It is advisable to look into breakdown memos of machines – an increase in breakdown memos should be looked into. Any reduction in production or increase in defective / rejected production is a sign or brewing unrest.

Security Department:

Security department can detect industrial unrest with signs like avoiding eye contact, increase in complaints like delay due t searching or other minor complaints like petrol stealing or seat covers getting torn by miscreants or breaking open of lockers etc.

The Security Department through its intelligence gathering can detect secret meeting and make reports to management.

Canteen Department:

Canteens are the place where maximum information may be gained. Workers gather in canteens and during lunch meet their friends in other Departments and exchange notes. If we keep our eyes and ears open, we can collect information about would be industrial unrest.

Canteen is a place where management is provides and worker is customer. Worker can complain against quality of food, cleanliness, service etc. Typical complaints indicating unrest are overcooked or undercooked food, small stores in rice or insects, flies, cockroaches in food etc.

Most industrial unrest may start in canteen. Workers may waste food by booking their lunch and not going to canteen but instead eat their own Tiffins. They may also resort to eating some item more – like only eating Chapattis or rice only and create shortage.


In dispensary, the worker may talk about abrasive supervisor, or pushy foremans who are responsible for hurry and then accidents. The sick report should be carefull checked for any sudden increase in patients especially from a particular department. Some department / sections are small so that small number going sick would affect their working.

2. Preparing for strike / lock out:

These days, competitive situation when companies are struggling to survive even during normalcy. Therefore, both management and union must strive to solve their problems across the table and should not resort to either lock out or strike respectively.

A wise union would categorically avoid strikes at all times but will avoid it if there are under mentioned reasons:

• If there is stockpile of companies products and marketing effort is proving unsuccessful.
• If the union does not have financial serves which can be used in cash. It is of not much use, if they have assets like plot, office or furniture.
• During Jul-Aug, when school / colleges open and there is a burden of fees, uniforms, books, shoes etc and month of OCT / Nov. which is festival season like Diwali.
• If there is a dryer wet drought.

Similarly, a wise management would avoid a lock out categorically in the following circumstances:

• If there is a prestigious order, export order, defense order to be completed in a time frame.
• If the company’s products are doing well in the market and profitability is good.
• If company does not have financial reserve.
• During months of Sep / Mar. for half yearly and year ending results.

The management should prepare itself for strike by workers systematically.

During the preparations for strike or lock out the qualities of management to give superior leadership and better administration should come to the fore.

Real skill of the management during the time when industrial unrest comes out in the open is to be proactive and try to persuade unions to avoid the path of confrontation and come back to negation table and above all become reasonable.

CEO along with HR Manager should communicate the situation with managers, officers, supervisors and union. Industrial unrest is recipe for disaster for the organization., it must convince the union leadership about the same.

In case situation still demands, the management must use Notice Board to tell its employee about lowered production, increased rejection, insubordination, acts of indiscipline, sabotage, threats by the musclemen or any acts of violence. The notices would normally becoming harsher and threatening as under:

• Requesting
• Urging
• Cautioning
• Threatening

Notices should be carefully files, as they would be great help in case Company wants to get injunction order from the court; one copy should always be given to the secretary of union.

As the unions intensify the agitation, management should respond by taking many steps as under:

a) Taking disciplinary action against errant workers when the cases are perfect in terms of execution, witnesses and documentation.
What preparation can management do prevent strike / lock outs or prepare for it.

Q.5. a) What is a disaster? Explain types of disaster and disaster plan.
b) What are the functions of chief co-ordinator of disaster control?

Ans :- Disaster :– Definition:

Disaster could be defined as one or more emergence, which can affect several or all departments and personnel working within a location and can result in extensive damage to property, loss or life, disruption both inside and outside the work place.

Types of disasters:

Disasters could be grouped under natural, accidental and man-made. The location of the installation / plant, geographical factors, environmental factors and the past experience / history playa major role in determining the magnitude of hazards and the preparation of scheme to meet the different situations.

1. Natural disasters:

1.1 Flood:

Installation / plants located near rivers, streams, backwaters and or lakes. This could also happen due to bursting of dams or continuous heavy downpour.

For speedy and reliable information, we must remain in touch with state authorities. Flood control organizations for early warnings. Keeping the entire storm after drains and dikes open, this will help reduce the ravages of water flooding.

1.2 Earthquakes:

They are unpredictable and can occur anywhere and at anytime. It will disrupt all essential services such as water supply, power supply, telephone line etc. with heavy losses / damages. These could, however, be reduced, if immediate action is taken during early tremors. Plan should be drawn for alternate arrangement.

1.3 Storm:

Wind with a speed of 90 tans and above is known as cyclone and tornado is the whirling wind with speed upto or more than 300 KMPH. It causes damage to buildings, fall of trees, snapping of power and telephone line.

Casualties are mainly due to flying objects. With the aid of satellites, storms and cyclones could be predicted by Government agencies to take timely action. Some of the jobs are as follows:

a) Stop all hot jobs within the plant / location.
b) Action for maintaining water level to be taken. Similarly, action is taken to reduce the flammable liquid.
c) Tie up all loose metal.
d) Provision of emergency shelters.

1.4 Lightning:

This too is unpredictable but could be disastrous only during monsoon season causes serious fires and shall have to be treated like any other major fire.

2. Accidental disasters:

Major accidents pertaining to Petrochemical industry could be as follows:

2.1 Chemical accidents:

• The type of products we store may cause explosions, if two chemicals get mixed inadvertently.

2.2. LPG sphere or unexpanded vapour cloud explosion.

2.3 Tank failure / Boil over.

2.4 Bursting of a boiler due to defective safety valve.

2.5 Bursting of pipeline carrying petrochemical products.

Advance planning would certainly give confidence to deal with any situation and the fallout could be confined to small area. The Bhopal gas tragedy or the IPCL Nagothane case gives us enough cautions to gear us with the plan of action for any eventuality.

3. Man-made Disaster:

3.1 Sabotage:

Sabotage of our pipelines which are continuously under pressure pumping products from plant to various terminals could cause tremendous loss of life and property. It
would be useful, if the pipeline is divided into sections / sectors for isolation to minimize the damage.

Alertness and speed in closing such intermediate valves should be highlighted into the action plan.

3.2. Arson / Wilful damage:

It consists of willful setting of fire or planned destruction of property by people with
motive of ideological commitment, personal gain, disgruntled elements or a man with unsound mind bent on causing damage / destruction. Disaster plan of such occurrences’ should be geared to protect life and property.

3.3 Riots / Civil commotion:

This takes into account the outbreak of lawlessness by a crowd determined to cause injury and damage to the plant and equipment.

Disaster Plan:

Disaster plan is a strategy well evolved, organized and rehearsed to utilize the internal resources of the organization with minimal dependence on outside agencies for the following purposes:

• Rescue and recuperation of casualties.
• To contain loss and damage to property and environment.
• To protect the life of personnel not affected directly by the disaster.
• To ensure that absolute normal safety and security is achieved within the shortest time.
• To ensure that there is no further fall out of the disaster.
• To prevent recurrence of such a disaster.
• To establish a system for review, rectification or modification of the plan in the light of actual experience.

Functions of Chief Co-ordinator:

Senior Most Officer of the installation should be appointed as Chief Coordinator – Disaster Management System. he will be responsible for planning and co-ordination of activities pertaining to the system within and outside the unit. He will also be responsible to inform the higher level of management by quickest means and liaise with the local civil authorities either himself or through one of his officials.

An organization structure should be drawn on similar lines as given below and incorporate it into the Disaster plan. Each individual under the scheme shall be nominated by name with the residential address and telephone numbers, if available, should be incorporated into the plan.

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