Q6 (a) Explain how the training needs can be identified?
Training could be useful aid in improving the transformation process that takes place in an organization n terms of the processing of inputs to outputs. Training needs have to be related both in terms of the organizational demands and that of the individual’s. Diversifications of product lines, new technology and hence a new kind of jobs demands the individual’s growth and development through induction training, or training necessitate by job rotation due to an organization’s internal mobility policies.
Recognition that a problem exists
Identification of the real problem
Consideration of possible solutions
Non training solutions Training solutions
Discuss as appropriate Commitment of management action
Fig.1 Models of Identifying Training needs
Many methods have been proposed for identifying training needs, which are as follows:
1. View of the line manager
2. Performance appraisal
3. Company and departmental plans
4. View of training manager
5. Analysis of job difficulties.
Now we can explain a model of identifying training needs, which constitute the following three factors:
1. Organizational Analysis
2. Task Analysis
3. Man Analysis
Total Organizational Analysis
It is a systematic effort to understand exactly where training efforts needs to be emphasized in an organization. It involves the detailed analysis of the organizational structure, objectives, human resources and future plans, and an understanding of its cultural values. An in depth analysis of this factor would facilitate an understanding of deficiencies need to be rectified.
The first step in organizational analysis is achieving a clear understanding of both short-run and long run goals.
From the point of view of the training, a manager would need to examine if there are any specific training inputs that could contribute towards the attainment of the corporate objectives. For instance, the organizational structure might have to be realigned keeping in view the changed objectives, growth and diversification plans, or the possibility of need for greater decentralization or induction of new employees and redefined jobs all of which will have implications on each individual job role in the organization necessitating the training of the employees.
For an organization analysis there are three essential requirements, which are as follows:
v An adequate number of personnel available to ensure fulfillment of business operation.
v The personnel performance is upto the required standard.
v The working environment in there departments is conducive to fulfillment to tasks.
In order to analysis the organizational climate there are two different methods that are being used i.e. the direct and indirect method.
Direct methods are observations, use of questionnaires and interviews whereas indirect methods would not give a clear understanding of the attitudes and predispositions of the employees. It would be better to make a careful analysis and study each indicator in a particular situation in conjunction with more direct methods.
This activity entails a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and condition under which it has to be performed. The focus is on the task itself, rather than on the individual and the training required to perform it. Analysis of the job and its various component will indicate the skills and training require to perform the job at the required standard.
Standard of performance: every job has an expected standard of performance unless such standards are attained, not only interrelated job suffers but organizational viability will be effected and so will be the expectation that have been set for that particular job itself. It enables us to know whether the job is being performed at the desired level of output or not.
Methods: Task analysis entails not merely simple listing of the various job components but also of the relatively critical nature of the various sub-tasks. Conventional methods of job analysis are usually suitable for task analysis. They are as follows:
1. Literature review regarding the job.
2. Job performance
3. Job observation
4. Data collection regarding job interviews
Analysis of the job is but one part of the task analysis other areas are the skill required either in terms of an education and training to perform the job knowledge, and finally attitudinal predispositions.
Man analysis is the third component in identifying training needs. The focus of man analysis is on The individual employees; his abilities, his skills and the inputs required for job performance, individual growth and development in terms of career planning. Man analysis help to identify whether the individual employee requires training and if so, what kind of training. Clues to training needs can come from an analysis of an individual’s or group’s typical behavior. The primary source of such information is
1. Observation at place of work; examination of job schedules; quantum of spoilage; wastage; and clues about interpersonal relations of the employees
2. Interview with superiors and employees
3. Comparative studies of good vs. poor employees to identify difference; skills and training gaps.
4. Personal records.
5. Production report
6. Review of literature regarding the job and machines used.
7. Job knowledge, work sampling and diagnostic psychological tests also provides information about employees.
Job performance data are more reliable when an employee is responsible for a simple, repetitive, single outcome type of a job. The job complexities increases with increasing responsibilities and the employee are more responsible for more outcomes.
The second method is by devising situations, which requires an employee to use similar skills and knowledge as on his job. These simulation exercises can focus on all aspects of the job and allows for better training than offered by the situation where only a particular aspect is stressed due to exigencies of work.
Finally, there are observational measures. The main features of this method are that this is an indirect data gathering process, by the supervisor or the third person. Some of these methods are checklist, merit rating, employee performance record etc.
So these are some of the methods through which we can identify the need for training in a particular organization.
Q6 (b) Explain how the results of training can be evaluated?
Evaluation of any activity is important, since in evaluating one try to judge the “ value or worth of the activity, using the information available”. It is an attempt to obtain information on the effect of the training and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information. The various steps involved in the evaluation process are as follows:
The first method in the evaluation process is to identify the areas of training to be evaluated. The next step would be to decide on the strategies and methods to be used in collecting the relevant information, which is then processed into tabular format and then analyzed.
The second method of the evaluation of the training is that of rating. “Various elements of the training system should be rated independently by several qualified persons. These elements include trainees, instructors, equipments etc.
The third method is trainee surveys where opinions of the trainees are used for evaluation.
The fourth method is trainee interviews, whereby ideas and views that trainees might not put down on paper can be determined by skilful questioning which allows for more precise information and details to be obtained and prevent ambiguity.
The final method is that of collecting the observation and recommendations of instructors through surveys and interviews “ to ensure that the system is consistent with the needs of the implementers of the training”.
So these are some of the methods that can be used in the process of evaluation of training
Q7 (a) Examine the elements of Succession Planning?
The various elements of Succession Planning are as follows:
1. The first and for-most element of succession planning is the development of staffing plans which should be prepared on an individual basis for all anticipated needs in the immediate year ahead and for key positions the intermediate and long range future. The business plans should be reviewed to determine their effect on managerial needs and there should be a proper formulation of the organizational plans and human resource. This can be more illustrated with the help of the fig given below:
Fig. 1 Structure of Development Plans of Succession Planning
2. The second step concerns the staffing and development. Staffing includes recruitment, selection and placement of candidates from outside as well as selection and movement of present employees through promotion and transfer. There are some approaches that are to be used during the development procedure of the managerial staff which are as follows:
v There should be some formal training given to the managerial staff.
v There should be planned job rotation process.
v There should be a performance planning and appraisal program that should help to motivate employee to work hard.
v Proper counseling and coaching should be given to each and every employee to do its work properly.
3. The third element of Succession Planning is creation of a congenial environment where the employees can work at there best. The organizational environment should be such that the relation between the superior and subordinate should be more healthy and the subordinates should be aware about the expectation of the superiors and vice versa.
4. The concept of the appraisal is the most efficient method to motivate the employee to give their best for the attainment of the goals. The Appraisal and analysis of results achieved should provide an organization with the feedback of the performance of all the employees working with the organization.
5. The last step of the element of succession planning is the preparation of Management Resources Inventory consisting of the following:
v Personal Data
v Career Goals
v Career Plans
This should help identify the best-qualified employees for filling present and future managerial vacancies.
Q 7(b) Explain the advantages of promoting employees from within the organization rather than employing outside persons.
Answer7 (b) From the motivational angle, importing new blood is undesirable especially when the existing personnel can be absorbed into higher positions. An exclusive policy of promoting persons from within the organization can lead to “inbreeding” resulting in promotion of people who have intimated there superiors. The benefits of recruiting from within the organization are as follows:
1. The valuable contacts with the major suppliers are kept. As the person who is working in the organization and dealing with the major suppliers, he will be more comfortable in getting the business from those suppliers other than the person who will be recruited as a new blood as it will take him time to create a reputation with that supplier and to get the business for the organization.
2. It builds loyalty among the employees: with the help of the internal recruitment the organization will be able to gain the loyalty of the employee who is working with the organization. As he will be aware that the organization knows about the worth of the person because of which he is being promoted and will also encourage other employee to prove there worth to the organization.
3. It ensures the stability from continuity of employment: Internal recruitment also helps in creating the stability and the continuity of the employees of the organization, as they will be encouraged to work hard to gain the status that they look forward to which will help in attaining the stability of the employees.
4. Creates a sense of security among the employees: as there will be more and more internal recruitment it tends to create a sense of security among the employees and will not be hesitant to work towards the achievement o the goals.
5. It encourages other executives and lower ranked officers to look forward to rising to higher levels. It acts as a motivational factor and encourages other employees to have a positive effect on their work and they start working with more enthusiasm and willingness.
6. The most important benefit of internal recruitment is that the people who are already working with the organization will be aware about the rules and regulation of the organization and will be familiar with the different activities that are happening in the organization.
7. The internal recruitment will also reduce the cost of training the new blood about the different strategies of working in the organization as the person who is already working with the organization will already have the knowledge about the work that will be given to him when he will be promoted.
8. Internal recruitment will help in saving the time that will be wasted in selecting the new blood for the organization and it will not include the process of scrutinizing the new blood for the organization.
So, to conclude we can say that the internal recruitment is the best way to motivate people within the organization to work hard towards the organizational goals and will also reduce the cost and time that is being spent on the procedure to select the new blood from outside for working in the organization.
Q9 (a) What is Job Evaluation? Explain the various methods used in conducting Job Evaluation Studies.
Job evaluation is the technique to determine in a systematic and analytical manner the comparative worth of a job with an organization in relation to other jobs in terms of the skills needed, responsibilities involved, efforts required and the surroundings in which it is performed. Job evaluations attempts to measure these requirements for individual jobs and arrive at their respective worth and place them in their relative order. There are various techniques of job evaluation that helps in the analysis of the different jobs.
Techniques of Job Evaluation
All forms of the job evaluation are designed to enable the management to determine how much one job should be paid as compared to some other job. All the systems of job evaluation are being classified in to two categories:
1. Non quantitative which includes simple ranking and grading system
2. Quantitative, which included Point system and factor comparison method.
The description of these techniques is as follows:
1. Job Ranking: this method is widely used in small organizations being a very simple and inexpensive method it consumes less time and promises enough potential in its usefulness. Before actual ranking, brief job description of all jobs are taken and then the job’s relative worth is being worked on and the highest and the lowest job are determined which serves as the bench mark for the ranking of the remainder. The second method is the paired comparison technique in which each job is to be compared with all other jobs and once the comparison is being done, jobs are arranged to their worth.
2. Job Grading: in this we have the additional feature of pre-decided scale of values consisting of grades and grade description. From this, the grade descriptions are prepared which should be broad enough to include several jobs. Two approaches are being used in preparing the grade description that helps to create a single scale of values for measuring the worth of a job. For e.g. in an enterprises, job A and B are similar in nature and job X, Y and Z are of similar nature. Another approach is to give some known key jobs.
3. Factor comparison system: in this the job factors are compared instead of the whole job. It consists of the following steps:
v Selection of job characteristics
v Selection of key jobs
v Determination of correct rats of key jobs
v Ranking key jobs under each job factor
v Allocation of correct rates to each key job
v Evaluation of all other jobs
v Designing, adjusting and operating the wage structure.
4. Point rating system: it is quantifying, analytical and detailed approach hammered out to derive a balance wage structure with least dispute among employees. The method consists the following steps:
v Select job factor or features.
v Prepare yardstick of values for each job factor.
v Decide the values of all the jobs against the predetermined yardstick.
v Build a wage survey for selected key jobs.
v Design the wage structure.
v Adjust and operate the wage structure.